Mass and Balance (ATPL)

Code: mk3massr03hx17-en
ECTS Credit Points: 3
Evaluation: official exam
Year, Semester: 3rd year, 2nd semester
Its prerequisite(s): -
Further courses are built on it: Yes/No
Number of teaching hours/week (lecture + practice): 2+2


The course teaches the basic knowledge of Mass and Balance to demonstrate a level that grants a succesfull authority exam according to FCL.515 ATPL - Training course and theoretical knowledge examinations.

The course covers the following main areas and give thorough information on:

Purpose of mass and balance considerations, loading, fundamentals of cg calculations, mass and balance details of aircraft, determination of cg position, general principles take off, climb and descent, general principles landing, single engine, multi-engined class b take off, climb, cruise, landing, class a aircraft take off, additional take off procedures, take off climb, en route, landing, cargo handling

By conducting the course the student will have the knowledge recommended by the EU legislation (AMC1 FCL.310; FCL.515 (b); FCL.615 (b) and will understand the legal bacnground and basis of aviation, learn the structure and sources of the rules.


  • Cae Oxford Aviation Academy (UK),Mass and Balance - Performance, 2015, Isbn szám: 978 1 90620 269 9
1st week 8th week
Registration week 1st drawing week
2nd week 9th week

Lecture: Purpose of Mass-and-Balance Considerations, limitations, Importance with regard to structural limitations, Importance with regard to performance, Centre-of-gravity (CG) limitations, Importance with regard to stability and controllability, Importance with regard to performance

Practice: Stability calculation

Lecture: Mass-and-Balance Details of Aircraft, Extraction of basic empty mass and CG data from aircraft documentation, Basic empty mass (BEM) and/or dry operating mass (DOM), CG position and/or moment at BEM/DOM, Deviation from standard configuration

Practice: Documentation examples

3rd week 10th week

Lecture: Loading, Terminology, Mass terms, Load terms (including fuel terms), Mass limits, Structural limitations, Performance limitations,-compartment limitations

Practice: Documentation examples

Lecture: Determination of CG Position, Methods, Arithmetic method, Graphic method, Index method Practice: Methods examples
4th week 11th week

Lecture: Loading, Mass calculations, Maximum masses for take-off and landing, traffic load and fuel load, Use of standard masses for passengers, baggage and crew

Practice: Mass calculation examples

Lecture: Determination of CG Position, Load and trim sheet, General considerations

Practice: Load and trim sheet examples, case studies

5th week 12th week

Lecture: Fundamentals of Centre-of-Gravity Calculations, Definition of Centre of Gravity (CG), Conditions of equilibrium (balance of forces and balance of moments)

Practice: Basic calculations of CG

Lecture: Determination of CG Position, Load sheet and CG envelope for light aeroplanes and for helicopters

Practice: Load and trim sheet examples, case studies

6th week 13th week

Lecture: Mass-and-Balance Details of Aircraft, Contents of mass-and-balance documentation, Datum, moment arm, CG position as distance from datum, CG position as percentage of Mean Aerodynamic Chord (% MAC), Longitudinal-, Lateral CG limits, passenger and cargo compartments, fuel system relevant to mass-and balance considerations

Practice: Airport visit, demonstration of compartments, fuel system

Lecture: Determination of CG Position, Load sheet for large aeroplanes, Trim sheet for large aeroplanes, Last-minute changes, Repositioning of CG by shifting the load, by additional load or ballast

Practice: Load and trim sheet examples, case studies

7th week 14th week

Lecture: Mass-and-Balance Details of Aircraft, Determination of aircraft empty mass and CG position by weighing, Weighing of aircraft (general aspects)

Practice: Calculation of mass and CG position of an aircraft using weighing data

Lecture: Cargo Handling, Types of cargo (general aspects), Floor-area load and running-load limitations in cargo compartments, Securement of load

Practice: Airport visit, handling demonstration

15th week  
2nd drawing week  

A, for a signature:
Attendance at lectures is recommended, but not compulsory. Participation at practice classes is compulsory. A student must attend the practice classes and may not miss more than three times during the semester. In case a student does so, the subject will not be signed and the student must repeat the course. A student can’t make up any practice with another group. Attendance at practice classes will be recorded by the practice leader. Being late is equivalent with an absence. In case of further absences, a medical certificate needs to be presented. Missed practice classes should be made up for at a later date, to be discussed with the tutor.

B, for grade:
The course ends with an official examination as set out in the regulations of 1178/2011/EU, Part-FCL.

Last update: 2023. 10. 16. 15:11